What is eczema?
Eczema are a group of skin diseases in which there is inflammation that has several lesions. They are characterized by starting with a reddening of the affected area, causing intense pruritus and desquamation. They can easily expand into other areas of the body and evolve into an acute or chronic and recurrent process with outbreaks, especially eczema caused by genetic causes.
Eczema lesions are characterized by the combination of redness (erythema), lesions with volume (papules) and occasionally the appearance of vesicles or scales.
These evolve according to the time that makes that have appeared:
- Acute injury: the skin is very red, hot and with vesicles full of clear liquid that sometimes can explode causing the formation of a superficial crust.
- Chronic injury: the skin, in this case, is becoming drier, thicker and with scaly production.
There are several factors that can cause eczema:
- Irritant substances
- Genetic factor
- Coexistence with other diseases
There are three types of eczema according to the symptomatology they present:
- Atopic eczema:
It presents red lesions and intense prurito, causing a desquamación of the zone. It’s associated with allergic processes (asthma, urticaria, allergic rhinitis and dry skin).
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- Seborrheic eczema:
It presents whitish or yellowish scales on a reddish area. It’s common in children during the first months of life in the scalp (dairy scab) and in the diaper area. As for adults, it usually occurs on the face, ears and scalp, but can affect other areas of the body.
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- Contact Eczema:
This type of eczema is usually caused due to an allergic response to a product by contact. It’s recommended to perform epicutaneous tests to detect the substance that causes this reaction.
We talk about different treatments:
- General measures:
- Avoid excessive washing
- Use soap without detergent
- Moisturize skin daily
- Avoid contact with irritating products and products that may cause his an allergy
- Topical treatments: Based on topical corticosteroids during a limited period of time and topical immunomodulatory (pimecrolimus and tacrolimus).
- Phototherapy: in those cases where the patient hasn’t reacted with the previous treatments and/or we talk about chronic cases, phototherapy is advised that has an anti-inflammatory effect on the skin. It consists of applying ultraviolet radiation type A and/or B UVA/UVB in a medical cabin.